The effects of chronic fat overconsumption on intestinal physiology and lipid metabolism remain elusive. It is unknown whether a fat-mediated adaptation to lipid absorption takes place. To address this issue, mice fed a high-fat diet (40%, w/w) were refed or not a control diet (3%, w/w) for 3 additive weeks. Despite daily lipid intake 7.7-fold higher than in controls, fecal lipid output remained unchanged in mice fed the triglyceride (TG)-rich diet. In situ isolated jejunal loops revealed greater [1-(14)C]linoleic acid uptake without TG accumulation in mucosa, suggesting an increase in lipid absorption capacity. Induction both in intestinal mitotic index and in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake, trafficking, and lipoprotein synthesis was found in high-fat diet mice. These changes were lipid-mediated, in that they were fully abolished in mice refed the control diet. A lipid load test performed in the presence or absence of the LPL inhibitor tyloxapol showed a sustained blood TG clearance in fat-fed mice likely attributable to intestinal modulation of LPL regulators (apolipoproteins C-II and C-III). These data demonstrate that a chronic high-fat diet greatly affects intestinal physiology and body lipid use in the mouse.